BERKELEY, CA -- Recent ice ages -- ten periods of
glaciation in the past million years -- are caused by changes in the tilt of the
Earth's orbit, according to research published in the July 11 issue of
Science magazine. The new analysis also presents strong evidence that
another long prevailing theory does not account for these ice ages.
Researchers Richard A. Muller of the Ernest
Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and Gordon J.
MacDonald of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria,
are co-authors of the Science article.
Muller and MacDonald report that cyclical changes
in the location of the Earth's orbit cause differing quantities of
extraterrestrial debris to come into the Earth's atmosphere. This, in turn,
results in variations of climate on the planet.
Said MacDonald, "As the Earth moves up and down
in the plane of the solar system, it runs into various amounts of debris, dust
and meteoroids. Our work was an outgrowth of investigations of larger impacts,
such as the comet or asteroid that killed the dinosaurs. However, meteoroids and
dust are much smaller and more spread-out over time."
Muller notes that this new research has important
implications for the understanding of the present climate, and for predictions
of future climate.
"As far as we know," he said, "none of the
present climate models include the effects of dust and meteors. And yet our data
suggests that such accretion played the dominant role in the climate for the
last million years. If we wish to make accurate predictions, we must understand
the role played by such material."
Despite the current relatively warm climate on
Earth, regular recurring epochs of glaciation have dominated the planet for the
past million years. Ten times, glaciers have advanced and then retreated with
the duration of retreat (and corresponding warmth) frequently lasting not more
than 10,000 years. The Earth has been in a warm period for about 10,000 years
In the paper in Science, the researchers
compared the geological record to the climactic cycles that would result from
their theory and to that of the competing theory, first published in 1912 by
Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovitch. Using a geological fingerprinting
technique, Muller and MacDonald found that the climactic changes recorded in the
rocks matched their theory but not that of Milankovitch.
Milankovitch said the ice ages are caused by
variations in sunlight hitting the continents. In his theory, the ice ages are
linked to "eccentricity," a very gradual, cyclic change in the shape of the
Earth's egg-shaped orbit around the sun that completes a cycle roughly every
100,000 years. Eccentricity changes the Earth's average annual distance from the
sun and slightly alters the amount of sunlight hitting the Earth.
To visualize the different astronomical cycle
that Muller and MacDonald have found to match that of the climatic record,
imagine a flat plane with the sun in the center and nine planets circling close
to the plane. In fact, all the planets orbit the sun close to such a fixed
orbital plane. The Earth's orbit slowly tilts out of this plane and then
returns. As Muller first calculated in 1993, the cycle of tilt repeats every
In their Science paper, Muller and
MacDonald examine the geological record of the past million years to see which
of the two 100,000-year cycles (eccentricity or tilt) matched the data.
They applied a technique called spectral analysis
to ocean sediments taken from eight locations around the world, examining the
oxygen-18 composition. This isotope is generally accepted to reflect the
percentage of the Earth's water frozen in ice.
Muller and MacDonald's analysis yields "spectral
fingerprints" which can be compared to the predictions of the two theories.
Their analysis shows a clear pattern: The fingerprints of the ice ages show a
single dominant feature, a peak with a period of 100,000 years. This precisely
matches their theory. The fingerprints do not match the expected trio of peaks
predicted by the Milankovitch theory.
Said Muller, "The mechanism proposed by
Milankovitch could be adjusted to explain the cycles of glaciation that occurred
prior to one million years ago. However, for the past million years the glacial
record is an excellent match to the cycle of tilt."
Berkeley Lab conducts unclassified scientific
research for the U.S. Department of Energy. It is located in Berkeley,
California and is managed by the University of California.
Internet Source Reference:
I) Ice Age:
- A period of time
during which ice sheets (continental glaciers) cover substantial portions of the
- Geologists recognize a few major ice ages during Earth History. For example:
* Pleistocene (ice age of the past 2 million years)
* Pennsylvanian/Permian (around 250 million years ago).
* Late Precambrian (around 600 million years ago)
- What's the
evidence? Determine where glacial sediment deposits lie in the stratigraphic
- During an
individual ice age, there may be several glacial advances (ice sheet grows; a
glacial interval) and intervening glacial retreats (ice sheet shrinks; an
between advances and retreats is tens to hundreds of thousands of years.
- What's the evidence?
* Identify distinct layers of till separated by paleosols (ancient soil
* Marine record (better preserved) contains evidence for more than 20 advances.
Geologists look at isotopes in plankton shells, because these depend on
temperature, so it's possible for them to determine when the oceans were warmer,
and when they were colder.
II) Causes of Ice
- Position of the continents; need to have continents drift into high latitudes
(i.e., closer to pole) so they can be cool.
- Configuration of ocean currents, because these transport heat
- Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
* CO2 is a "greenhouse gas" (traps heat in the atmosphere)
- So when there is more CO2 the atmosphere gets warmer, while when there is less
CO2 the atmosphere gets cooler.
- Controls on CO2 concentration are complex. Depends on volcanic eruptions,
character of life, etc.
- When the continents are in the right position, and there are ice house
conditions, an ice age is possible.
- The advances and retreats during an ice
age probably are controlled by the Milankovitch cycle (a periodic change in the
tilt of the Earth's axis and the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit).
- Earth's orbit varies between more circular and more elliptical. When it's more
elliptical, earth gets further from the sun and can be cooler.
- Earth's axis
wobbles. When the axis is more tilted, the sunlight on continents at high
latitudes is more direct, so they have warmer summers.
- When there's a
combination of high tilt and more elliptical orbit, earth has cooler climate,
and glaciers can advance.
Scenario of Glacial Advance and Retreat during an Ice Age:
conditions are appropriate for ice to accumulate. Glaciers advance.
2) Land becomes covered with snow and ice, so albedo (reflectivity) increases.
Because sunlight is reflected by earth's surface, rather than absorbed, the
earth gets even cooler. So glaciers continue to grow.
3) Water gets stored in the ice sheet, so sea level drops (continental shelf
becomes dry land). Also, ocean freezes over. Net consequence is that amount of
water supplied by evaporation decreases.
4) Weight of glacier depresses the surface of the land, so the surface elevation
of ice sheet drops to lower (i.e. warmer) elevations.
5) The glacier starts to recede.
IV) What the
- Big question is
whether we are currently in an interglacial period (i.e. between two advances)
or whether the Pleistocene ice age is over for good.
- There was a small advance during the "Little Ice Age" that happened a few
hundred years ago. But in the last couple of centuries, glaciers have retreated
- An added factor is that people are now changing the concentration of carbon
dioxide, by burning fossil fuel. Burning produces CO2. Thus, CO2 that had been
stored in the underground reservoir is now being released to the atmosphere.
- The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has measurably increased since the
industrial revolution. Since CO2 is a greenhouse gas, this could cause global
- The atmosphere has clearly warmed too. But there is not total agreement about
whether human added CO2 is the cause, or whether natural cycling is the cause.
- It is possible that human-caused global warming could be a major problem.
Internet Source Reference:
Effects of Past Glaciations on Plant
and Animal Distributions
I. Causes of Glaciations
Ice ages are actually rare events in the Earth's 4.5
billion year history. In fact, the most recent ice ages occurred during the
relatively recent Pleistocene epoch, beginning about two million years
What initiates an ice age? We begin by first increasing
the Earth's albedo, causing a loss of insolation. This increase in albedo
began about 15 million years ago, when the Antarctic continent moved
over the South Pole which led to the development of a permanent polar ice cap.
To supplement this change in albedo in the Southern
Hemisphere, continental rearrangements about 3-5 million years ago
placed the northern regions of Greenland, Canada, Russia, and Alaska as a
fringe around the Arctic Ocean, cutting off warm ocean circulation to the
The Earth's albedo is about 33% as a whole, but the ice
caps reflect about 80% of insolation, thus reducing the amount of energy
retained by the Earth. The stage was set for development of an Ice Age.
But why hasn't the Earth remained uniformly cold in the
last two million years? Why have we had alternating cold and warm spells? The
most acceptable theory for the development of and ice age was put forward in
the 1930s by the Yugoslav Milutin Milankovitch, who used a sequence of
cyclic variations in the Earth itself.
First, variations in eccentricity: the Earth's
orbit changes its elliptical pattern every 100,000 years, changing between
a more circular orbit to one very elliptical. Circular orbits mean more
uniform receipt of energy from season to season and from year to year.
Second, variations in obliquity: every 40,000
years, the tilt of the Earth's axis shifts between 21.8 and 24.4
degrees. A more severe tilt means a greater contrast in seasonal distribution
of energy. A lower tilt means more uniform receipt of energy between the
seasons. Also, the polar regions will receive more energy during periods with
low tilt angles.
Third, variations in precession: the Earth's
zenith changes every 21,000 years, changing from pointing to the North
Star to another area, causing a precession of the equinoxes. For example, what
was once the spring equinox will be the fall equinox 10,500-11,000 years
later. This phenomenon affects the amount of incoming energy.
All these effects will (1) change the total amount of
insolation received, (2) change and redistribute the amount of insolation
received latitudinally, and (3) change the insolation received temporally.
In 1976, for the first time, irrefutable evidence of
these cycles was found in sediment cores taken from the deep ocean, confirming
the Milankovitch Theory. These ocean sediments contain fossils that
provide precise temperature variations.
The Milankovitch pattern has been found in sediments
dating back eight million years, but one important change has been
detected. Eight million years ago, the 100,000 year cycle was weak, but became
stronger in the last two million years. This cycle has dominated the
glacial/interglacial sequence, but why has its influence changed? The Earth's
orbit can not change.
The answer lies in the ice masses themselves
created during an ice age. The ice grows slowly but decays rapidly. The ice
itself modifies global climate which enhances the effects of the 100,000 year
cycle. The distribution of land masses and ocean bodies is a major
contributing factor. Hence, the Milankovitch cycles just happened to
accentuate an already declining situation with the movement of lithospheric
Feedback effects also contributed to glaciations. For
example, during warm interglacials, increased organic activity will lead to an
increase in carbon dioxide and methane, confirmed in the ice core
record from Greenland. These are greenhouse gases and contribute to warm the
Earth during interglacials.
The anatomy of plants will change in response to
glaciations. For example, during warm interglacials, plants will need fewer
stomata (e.g., analyzing the stomatal density of subfossil
plants) to uptake the carbon dioxide, and this has recently been proven.
Another theory concerning glaciations is the conveyor
system that contributes to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Warm
waters are brought to the North Atlantic in a conveyor system in deep ocean
currents at about 800 meters. (Do not confuse this with surface circulation,
such as the warm Gulf Stream.) This conveyor system effectively redistributes
the energy surplus found around the equator to regions of energy deficit in
the higher latitudes.
Fossil evidence shows this conveyor system became
switched off during glacial periods, causing no warm water to reach the north
Atlantic. This contributed to the intensification of polar cooling. However,
scientists are unclear on what could shut down the conveyor system, perhaps
changes in ocean salinity, and therefore the density of the deep ocean water.
Finally, a favorite theory proposed that may contribute
to glacial periods is volcanic activity. An increase in volcanism will
increase the amount of dust particles in the atmosphere, thus reducing the
amount of insolation, and thereby reducing global temperatures.
Scientists have shown that volcanism has indeed
increased during the most recent two million years! But why? This would
suggest an increase in subductive activity at plate margins, and therefore an
increase in convective activity within the Earth. Therefore, one must ask, do
the origins of ice ages lie in variations of the temperature of the Earth's
The increased dust particles would also contribute to
increased precipitation as more condensation nuclei are found in the air.
Both consequences would contribute to a general overall global cooling.
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Internet Source Reference:
Internet Source Reference:
A Summary of Creation and
by Barry Setterfield
role that geological and astronomical catastrophes have played in the history of
the solar system, and our planet in particular, has become more widely examined
over the past 25 years . In this new avenue of research, both astronomers and
geologists have become aware of the important part played by impacting comets
and/or asteroids . One major segment of current geological inquiry
concentrates on life-form extinctions at the geological boundaries, plus the
evidence of simultaneous major earth movements . A concise overview of one
possible model, among many that may explain some of these events, is given
below. It is based on the evidence for changing light-speed as presented in an
August 1987 research report for SRI International and Flinders University ,
and a major scientific paper that has been undergoing a review process
throughout 2000 and 2001 .
Clue from Light from Distant Galaxies
two papers cite observational evidence that indicates light-speed, c, has
dropped exponentially from an initial value of the order of 4 x 1011
times its current speed. The evidence comes from light emitted by galaxies near
the frontiers of the cosmos, which has a signature in it that reveals the value
of c at the moment of emission. This signature allows the behaviour of
light-speed over time to be determined astronomically, in addition to the
ground-based observations over the last 350 years. These two papers demonstrate
that the atomic clock, whereby the age of the rocks, the fossils, the planets
and stars have all been determined, ticks at a rate dependent upon c. Thus when
c was 10 times its present value, the atomic clock ticked off 10 years in one
ordinary orbital year. This process includes all radiometric clocks, which are
used to determine the age of the geological strata. (Despite the behaviour of
the atomic clock, it is shown in the second paper  that chemical reaction
rates, and hence primary biological processes, remain basically independent of
c.) As the behaviour of c with time has thereby been established from
observation, it is then possible to correct the atomic clock to read actual
orbital time. When this is done, an interesting scenario emerges.
Another Clue from Meteorites
meteorites are taken to represent samples of material from the formation of the
solar system and hence the Earth. For example, carbonaceous chondrites, may hold
more than 20% water locked up in their mineral structures . More
specifically, carbonaceous chondrites of class CI are made up of hydrated
silicates as well as the volatile components water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and
nitrogen . By way of an earthly example, the beautiful mineral serpentine is
a hydrated silicate that contains 12.9% water in its composition . Upon
heating, this water is given up and the mineral turns to olivine, thereby
reducing its volume . Interestingly, olivine is an important component of the
earth's mantle. In a similar way, other hydrated silicates, found in meteorites
and on earth, may give up their water content when heated sufficiently, with a
consequent reduction in volume. Indeed, the chondrules within the chondrite
meteorites themselves are silicate spherules that have been melted and the
volatile water component driven off. The remaining minerals in the chondrules
contain a prominent amount of olivine .
Role of Radioactive Decay
creation week, the interior of the earth began to heat up from the rapid decay
of short half-life radioactive elements as a result of high light-speed values.
This radioactive heating drove the water out of serpentine, and other minerals
in the mantle, towards the earth's surface. This water came to the surface as
springs and geysers and watered the ground. This is confirmed by the earliest
known translation of the Pentateuch, the Septuagint (LXX), that originated about
285 BC , and from which the Patriarchal dates in this Summary are taken. The
LXX specifically states in Genesis 2:6 that "fountains" sprang up from the
ground. These fountains and springs probably watered the whole landmass of the
single super-continent that made up the original land surface of the earth. In
the surrounding ocean, this continuing water supply was called the "fountains of
the deep." On a greatly reduced scale, a similar phenomenon still occurs today
with the "black smokers" of the South-East Pacific Rise.
Asteroidal Planet Break-up
events were happening out in space. For instance, the original parent body (or
bodies) of the current asteroids, which primarily inhabit the region between
Mars and Jupiter, was undergoing a process paralleling that on earth. This
process of short half-life radioactive heating of its interior reached a peak,
which reset the radiometric clocks. The time of the advent of this peak was
about 4.5 to 4.4 billion atomic years ago. This parent body probably came to be
internally structured with something approaching an iron core, stony-iron
mantle, chondritic upper mantle or crust, and, perhaps, an ice or frozen carbon
dioxide surface layer. As this planet continued to heat up internally, the
pressure of super-critical water and expanding rock may well have caused it to
acknowledged that radioactive heating from the short half-life elements could
structure the interior of bodies larger than 10 km in this fashion, and then,
following disruption, give rise to the meteorites . Indeed, "it is now
thought that the majority of meteorites come from the asteroids whose diversity
amply covers all classes of meteorites. The achondrites could come from the
'crust' or 'mantle,' the siderites from the cores, and the lithosiderites from
the mantle/core interface [of the original parent body/bodies]" . In
addition, recent work has indicated that leftover ice and rock from the region
of Neptune's orbit may also have been responsible for some short-period comets
and other debris . A series of impacts by this variety of objects has been
noted on the Earth, Moon, Mercury, Mars, and elsewhere in the solar system.
Forming the Stable Shield Areas
Radioactive heating also continued on earth, with the first signs of molten rock
intruded in the near-surface region about 4.4 to 4.3 billion atomic years ago.
On the light-speed correction, this probably occurred shortly after the birth of
Methuselah, which is dated around 4505 BC by the LXX chronology adopted here.
Importantly, there is evidence from zircon grains that water was associated with
this activity in some way . Indeed, as the heating continued, more and more
super-critical water built up beneath the crust. The increased heating partly
liquefied some sub-crustal rock, which moved towards the surface through
interconnected pores. This eventually resulted in the intrusion of granitic
massifs and associated metamorphic complexes that formed many of the stable
craton or shield areas worldwide around 2800 2400 million atomic years ago
. The presence of large quantities of water in these magmas may well have
allowed the kind of low-temperature metamorphism investigated by Prof. R. L.
Stanton , Dr. A. Snelling , and others . As a result, the
metamorphism associated with these intrusions may not have penetrated the
original sedimentary cover, even though the cratons and complexes were major
crustal features. On the light-speed correction, the formation of these shield
areas, which peaked near the Archaean/Proterozoic boundary 2500 million atomic
years ago, roughly corresponds with the birth of Noah in 4136 BC.
Forming the Incipient Tectonic Plates
serpentine changed to olivine, and other hydrated silicates lost their water
content, there was a reduction in mineral volume. Consequently, the crust above
the source areas for the water and magma would be weakened relative to the
stable cratonic areas that had been solidly emplaced. This would be a major
contributing factor to the predominantly vertical tectonic activity that
generally dominated the Precambrian, instead of the horizontal forces of plate
tectonics that predominated in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the earth [20,
21]. These strong vertical movements in these weakened regions of the crust
would result in intercratonic basins. In the case of South Australia, the
Adelaide Geosyncline downwarped some 10 km, while the major faults and other
structural features controlling these events extended to some 20 km depth .
On a worldwide scale, the downwarping formed a network of intercratonic basins
that became mobile belts. Read and Watson point out a striking fact: "The
network of mobile belts is closely followed by the margins of the present-day
continental fragments. This aspect of the orogenic pattern suggests that when
disruption of [the super-continent] began, fracturing followed the lines of the
recently consolidated mobile belts" . In other words, the stable cratons
formed the core areas of what today are the continental fragments. By contrast,
the weakened, downwarped areas were the regions that formed the boundaries of
what was to later become the tectonic plates.
Geology of Catastrophe 1.
initiation of a series of geologically mobile belts bordering the shield areas
of the super-continent can be approximately dated as 800 900 million atomic
years. At that time, the weakened crustal regions began to either downwarp or
sink into fault-controlled basins. The activity continued to build up from that
point and reached a climax at the time of the Flood. Interestingly, Noah was
given the command to build the Ark around 3656 BC, corresponding to 870 million
years atomically, which was just the time that this activity began. As the
heating continued in the earth's interior, the pressure increased and eventually
fractured the crust and the water explosively out-gassed to the surface. The
pressure of the overlying crust may well have jetted the mixture of water and
chewed-out debris as high as 20 km in a series of massive explosive eruptions
circling the earth. As such, it would be an eruption on a worldwide scale
similar to the local eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 AD where dense volcanic clouds
reached a height of 27 km , compared with the 19 km of Mount St. Helens in
1980 AD . Studies by Dr. Walter Brown suggest that about half the present
volume of the oceans may have been explosively out-gassed from the earth's
interior in that episode . As the surge of water intensified, the sediments
on top of the cratons were stripped off and swept into the rapidly deepening
troughs. Water-lubricated fault systems assisted this process that formed a
worldwide network of mobile belts. Some time after the Flood event concluded,
these troughs stabilised and many were uplifted.
Flood Layer in Geology
event correlates well with the debris layer that is found on all continents,
except India, a little below the boundary between the Proterozoic and the
Cambrian. This debris layer is composed of pebbles, cobbles and boulders bound
together in a cement-like matrix. It is called a conglomerate, or diamictite, or
tillite. However, the latter term implies a glacial origin. For this reason, one
of the current explanations for this worldwide debris layer invokes a "snowball
earth" scenario. This scenario postulates that the whole planet is iced over,
including the oceans, with glaciers existing at sea level in the tropics [27,
28, 29]. However, Williams and Schmidt list off 10 solid geological reasons why
this scenario must be invalid and a different explanation must be sought .
Adelaide, in South Australia, this initial debris layer is over 300 metres thick
, while the following deep-water laminated siltstone is over 2400 metres
thick and has a high carbon content . This sequence has its counterpart
worldwide. In Scotland, for example, the detrital layer is 750 metres thick
. In Zaire and Zambia the "Grand Conglomerat" is 300 metres thick and
is overlain by about 500 metres of carbonaceous silty shale and black limestone
in a manner very similar to the equivalent beds in Adelaide . Geologically,
this event dates from the Neo-Proterozoic around 720 million years ago
atomically. This closely approximates the time of Noah's Flood, 3536 BC, when
the atomic clock is corrected for light-speed variation. A post-Flood tectonic
adjustment occurred as the fault systems began to stabilise some 60 orbital
years later, which gives an age to the strata laid down then of around 600
million years ago atomically.
Palaeozoic Era that followed saw continuing deposition in intra-continental
basins or downwarped areas until the rising landforms restricted deposition to
the margins of the super-continent. This Era lasted 306 orbital years during
which the Palaeozoic strata were laid down, while intrusives into that strata
dated from about 600 million down to 250 million years atomically. During this
Era, a portion of the southern part of the super-continent straddled the South
Pole. As moisture-laden air swept over the pole, vast amounts of ice and snow
were precipitated. This resulted in widespread glacial deposits over that
portion of the land surface .
insects would have survived the Flood on floating vegetation mats, which would
have been much larger than, but similar to, the floating mats caused by lesser
floods today. These are known to harbour a great deal of life. Even amphibians,
while at home in the water, probably found the mats assisted survival. The
insects and amphibians would be able to thrive in the moisture-laden atmosphere
and the large bodies of warm water left over from the Flood process. These warm,
humid conditions would also favour the spore-bearing plants, the algae, mosses
and ferns. Consequently, these flora and fauna would be the most rapidly
proliferating life forms after the Flood, explaining their predominance in the
fossil record at that point. By contrast, other life forms were at a
disadvantage and only started the Era in very small numbers.
Meanwhile, the radioactive heating of the earth's interior continued. Eventually
the stage was reached when significant portions of the upper mantle became
molten. An episode of rampant volcanism would have followed. It produced the
Siberian flood basalts, while associated earth movements resulted in massive
tidal waves that swept huge quantities of vegetation into fault-controlled
troughs, which then formed the major coal measures . This event dates around
250 million atomic years ago, or about 3230 BC on a light-speed correction,
approximately the time of the Babel crisis in the second or third generation
after the Flood, according to Genesis 10. It is interesting to note that
Aboriginal legends in Australia link the origin of different languages (Babel)
with the formation of coal . Geologically it is known as the time of the
Permian extinction, and recent evidence from Japan and China suggests that an
asteroid or comet impact may have played a part also . It is also possible
that the Siberian flood basalts may hide another impact crater.
Age of the Dinosaurs
the Mesozoic Era that followed, active deposition of sediments took place around
the rim of the super-continent over a period of 225 orbital years. The change in
atmospheric conditions brought about by volcanism produced a dry and windy
climate generally. This resulted in the great wind-blown sand deposits that
typify this Era. The semi-desert climate would have decimated the amphibians,
and spore-bearing plants, and favoured the increasing numbers of reptiles that
lived in broad, luxuriant river valleys. The plants best adapted to this climate
were those that propagate by wind-blown pollen, namely the gymnosperms, which
include the palms and pines. These were the dominant life-forms during the
Mesozoic Era, and thus they are the primary forms that we find fossilised in
human and animal migration must have taken place during the two centuries of
orbital time that this Era occupied before the worst phases of continental drift
occurred. As the heating of the mantle continued, the mantle itself became
increasingly mobile, Furthermore, a significant water content would have built
up in the asthenosphere, a plastic layer at the base of the lithosphere that
starts about 40 km below the surface . The asthenosphere is, perhaps, the
primary region involved in continental drift [39, 40], although some maintain
that other parts of the mantle are involved as well . This lubrication and
mobility in the asthenosphere would have allowed the first movements of the
tectonic plates, and the Mid-Atlantic ridge began to unzip.
earth several asteroid impacts closed the Mesozoic Era, about 65 million atomic
years ago at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. The dinosaurs would have been
decimated. Wild fires destroyed much vegetation. The layer of iridium from
asteroid impacts and soot from the wild fires is virtually global. This was the
time of Peleg in the fifth generation after the Flood (Luke 3:35-36) when the
continents were divided (Genesis 10:25). When the light-speed correction is
applied, the atomic date for this event closely approximates to 3005 BC. The
basaltic Deccan Traps in India, whose origin may have been either through an
igneous event or impact related, were also outpoured at the time of this
disaster . If an impact origin for the Deccan Traps is discounted, the major
impact at this time was in the Yucatan (near the mid-Atlantic rift) leaving a
crater at least 150 km wide. Other impacts at this time also formed the Manson,
Karn, Kamensk and Gusev craters . The significant Lunar crater Tycho also
dates from the late Cretaceous . It is thus possible that this event was
contemporaneous with the formation of these other craters, as the light-speed
correction brings it very close to the BC date for Peleg on the LXX chronology.
Beginnings of the Cenozoic Era
large impact near the mid-Atlantic rift may have accelerated the rate of
continental drift. Tectonic plate movement and rifting would also have been
enhanced by very low mantle/asthenosphere viscosities, which were themselves due
to peak temperatures, significant water content, and high, but rapidly dropping,
light-speed values. Separating continents may have generated a series of
tsunamis. Mountains were also being upthrust by recently activated tectonic
forces. This might also imply chronic earthquake activity and persistent
volcanism. The impacts as well as the changing distribution of masses both on
and in the earth may have increased the axis tilt to something of the order of
28 degrees or more according to the observational data .
high axis tilt, mountain building and volcanism would all contribute to annual
extremes of climate. The mammals with their stable body temperatures were most
able to cope with these conditions. Among the plants, the angiosperms became
predominant with their seasonal flowering and fruit bearing. These plants
include most deciduous trees, which are more able to withstand seasonal
extremes. Continental drift would have resulted in isolated populations, which
in turn would have brought about localised dominances. As the Era progressed,
most giant forms would have died out due to new extremes of climate. From a
study of oxygen isotope ratios in shells from the Atlantic, we know that ocean
temperatures dropped progressively from the close of the Mesozoic throughout the
Cenozoic Era that followed . Once surface temperatures dropped below
freezing, the initial stage of the ice-age began.
Ice-Age and Jobab
of the destruction caused by these events, and the new rigorous weather
conditions, numbers of people were probably forced to seek shelter in caves.
They would have to get sustenance where they could find it, hunting animals,
digging up roots and getting what food they could. Suitably shaped rocks would
have had to suffice for weapons, even before wood and/or bone were used. After
conditions had stabilised, and basic needs had been met, there would be time to
re-establish civilisation, work with metals, plant corn, and build homes. This
trend is simply the recovery sequence from a series of huge natural disasters.
The book of Job was probably written at this time, as a study of its contents
reveals familiarity with many of the processes mentioned above. Indeed, Job is
probably an abbreviated form of Jobab who is listed as a nephew of Peleg in
Genesis 10:29. From a linguistics point of view, Jobab and Job in the Hebrew
texts of Genesis and Job can be the same name in different families of the same
language group . Therefore, with Peleg as his uncle, it seems that Jobab
probably lived during those traumatic times.
those times were coming to a close, the 1st Dynasty in Egypt probably commenced.
The discussion in "Creation and Catastrophe"  suggests that this
event probably took place during the period 2783 BC to 2767 BC. About the same
time, roughly 2765 BC, the main function governing light-speed behaviour had
almost reached the limit of its decay pattern. However, the secondary function
that is apparent in the astronomical and archaeological data is an oscillation,
which is still damping out. This oscillation governed the position of the first
light-speed minimum, which occurred around 2375 BC. The most recent minimum
seemed to occur around 1980 AD .
More Global Catastrophe and Abraham
effects of the ice-age began to taper off, another global event assisted that
process. This event changed the earth's axis tilt from more than 28 degrees,
back to the present 23.5 degrees. This event, too, may have been an asteroid or
comet impact, though other viable mechanisms have been discussed . Whatever
the cause, the improved climatic conditions allowed the eventual
re-establishment of major cultures. Studies of this event by the late Government
Astronomer for South Australia, George Dodwell , and USA researcher M. M.
Mandelkehr  lead to the conclusion that the date was close to 2345 BC, with
climatic, archaeological, and geological changes occurring globally. At this
same time, the movement of the earth's virtual geomagnetic pole position showed
a sudden change in direction, which was also an indication that an important
global event happened then . Although the matter is still open for
discussion, it appears that this event may well have marked the close of the 5th
Dynasty in Egypt, at least according to some likely chronologies .
brings us down to the less turbulent days of Abraham, who lived from 2304 to
2129 BC on the chronology adopted here. An archaeologist, Prof. D. N. Freedman
of the University of Michigan made some important comments on this matter. As a
result of the discovery of the Ebla tablets, written during the 23rd century BC,
he commented: "It is now my belief that the story [about Abraham] in Genesis
14 not only corresponds in content to the Ebla Tablet, but that the Genesis
account derives from the same period. Briefly put, the account in Genesis 14,
and also in Chapters 18-19, does not belong to the second millennium BC, still
less to the first millennium BC, but rather to the third millennium BC"
. This evidence thus lends credibility to the dating for Abraham adopted
here, as does the chronology accepted by the Church Fathers as outlined by
Theophilus of Antioch . This, then, would indicate that Abraham's visit to
Egypt occurred around 2229 BC, which was in the reign of Pharaoh Pepy II, if
some recent studies are accepted . By this time, the sequence of global
catastrophes was over, although we have records of continuing local catastrophes
over the time since then.
According to the astronomical data, light-speed has undergone an essentially
smooth decay, which would have been mirrored in the behaviour of the atomic
clock. These astronomical data indicate that the geological column may well have
been laid down progressively over a period of about 2000 orbital years,
punctuated by a series of catastrophes that caused the major extinctions noted
in the fossil record . Essentially, the fossil record is a
creation/catastrophe new-dominance sequence. Timewise, the build-up of
Precambrian (Cryptozoic) strata took about 1000 orbital years, while nearly 1000
further years elapsed during which much of the Phanerozoic strata were
deposited. The demarcation between the Cryptozoic and Phanerozoic strata was
probably Noah's Flood if this model is accepted.
Return To Top
Book Of Enoch
Enoch 65: 1-4, 9
1In those days Noah saw that the earth became inclined, and that
2Then he lifted up his feet, and went to the ends of the earth, to the
dwelling of his great-grandfather Enoch.
3And Noah cried with a bitter voice, Hear me; hear me; hear me: three times.
And he said, Tell me what is transacting upon the earth; for the earth labours,
and is violently shaken. Surely I shall perish with it.
4After this there was a great perturbation on earth, and a voice was
heard from heaven. I fell down on my face, when my great-grandfather Enoch came
and stood by me.
9Afterwards my great-grandfather Enoch seized me with his hand, raising me
up, and saying to me, Go, for I have asked the Lord of spirits respecting this
perturbation of the earth; who replied, On account of their impiety have their
innumerable judgments been consummated before me. Respecting the moons have they
inquired, and they have known that the earth will perish with those who dwell
upon it, (59) and that to these there will be no place of refuge for ever.
1After this he showed me the angels of punishment, who were prepared to come,
and to open all the mighty waters under the earth:
2That they may be for judgment, and for the destruction of all those who
remain and dwell upon the earth.
3And the Lord of spirits commanded the angels who went forth, not to take up
the men and preserve them.
4For those angels presiding over all the mighty waters. Then I went out from
the presence of Enoch.
Enoch 66: 13-14
13In those days shall the waters of that valley be changed; for when the
angels shall be judged, then shall the heat of those springs of water experience
14And when the angels shall ascend, the water of the springs shall again
undergo a change, and be frozen. Then I heard holy Michael answering and saying,
This judgment, with which the angels shall be judged, shall bear testimony
against the kings, the princes, and those who possess the earth.
Ethiopian Book Of Enoch
Note from Author, Malik Jabbar: These
excerpts from the Book Of Enoch are focused on ancient scripture that reports
shifts in the Orbit and Axis inclination of our planet. I will cover this
subject and explain the Cycles in Book Four.
A Modern English Translation
of the Ethiopian Book of Enoch
with introduction and notes by
Special thanks to Bredren Jason Naphtali
who found this translation (by M. Knibb) of the
Ethiopian text in the
S.O.A.S. Library at the University of London.
11) THE BOOK OF
65.1 And in those days,
Noah saw the Earth had tilted and that its destruction was near.
65.2 And he set off from
there and went to the ends of the Earth and cried out to his great-grandfather
Enoch; and Noah said three times in a bitter voice: "Hear me, hear me, hear
65.3 And he said to
him: "Tell me, what is it that is being done on the Earth, that the Earth is so
afflicted and shaken, lest I be destroyed with it!"
65.4 And immediately
there was a great disturbance on the Earth and a voice was heard from Heaven and
I fell upon my face.
65.5 And my
great-grandfather Enoch came, stood by me, and said to me: "Why did you cry out
to me, with such bitter crying and weeping?
65.6 And a command has
gone out from the Lord against those who dwell upon the dry ground that this
must be their end. For they have learnt all the secrets of the Angels, and all
the wrongdoings of the satans, and all their secret power, and all the power of
those who practice magic arts, and the power of enchantments, and the power of
those who cast molten images for all the Earth.
65.7 And further, how
silver is produced from the dust of the earth and how soft metal occurs on the
65.8 For lead and tin
are not produced from the earth, like the former; there is a spring which
produces them, and an Angel who stands in it, and that Angel distributes them."
65.9 And after this, my
great-grandfather Enoch took hold of me with his hand, and raised me, and said
to me: "Go, for I have asked the Lord of Spirits about this disturbance on the